Guide to Model Based Testing To Improve Test Automation

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  • Publicación de la entrada:17 noviembre, 2023
  • Categoría de la entrada:Software development

Model-Based Testing (MBT) represents a feasible and interesting testing strategy where test cases are generated from formal models describing the software behavior/structure. The MBT field is continuously evolving, as it could be observed in the increasing number of MBT techniques published at the technical literature. This chapter presents information intended to support researchers and practitioners reducing this gap, consequently contributing to the transfer of this technology from the academia to the industry. A model describing a SUT is usually an abstract, partial presentation of the SUT’s desired behavior.

what is model-based testing

The system will have a specific state and current state, which is governed by a set of inputs given by the testers. Model-Based Testing describes how a system behaves in response to an action (determined by a model). Supply action, and see if the system responds as per the expectation. Many pages of detailed and repeated steps can be replaced with few diagrams. Deliver unparalleled digital experience with our Next-Gen, AI-powered testing cloud platform.

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A model is a «formal, simplified representation of a relationship, a process or a system» (quoting Alex Rotaru). A model is a sort of specification which should tell what we expect in the software behaviour. As mentioned, there are invalid paths leading to non-realizable tests. For example, you can traverse a path of adding a car and then deleting two cars.

Any component of an application that can be simulated (by the model), driven (by the driver program) and compared (by the results) is a candidate for model-based testing. The simplest model is an algorithm that takes inputs and creates a single output. If the application does one thing well, perhaps interacting with a database, a model, drivers, and some sample input could be all that is required to test the application. Model-based testing is a systematic method to generate test cases from models of system requirements. It allows you to evaluate requirements independent of algorithm design and development. Unified Modeling Language (UML) is a standardized general-purpose modeling language.

what is model-based testing

The effectiveness of model-based testing is primarily due to the potential for automation it offers. If a model is machine-readable and formal to the extent that it has a well-defined behavioral interpretation, test cases can in principle be derived mechanically. Online testing means that a model-based testing tool connects directly to an SUT and tests it dynamically.

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TestIt [8] is an open-source toolkit for model-based testing of robotic systems. Its core features are test optimization, scalability, and long-term autonomy testing using model-based testing technique. This process involves manual testing, and each test scenario has to be written by hand. Any changes made to the UI will break the whole test case unless it’s updated along with the changes.

  • MBT Modeling, gives an overview of modeling languages used in MBT and guidelines for creating MBT models, as a core activity in an MBT approach.
  • We are going from A to B, prerequisite, action/s, result/s, some sort of linear scenario.
  • Static models are typically used for GUI testing, while dynamic models are used for API testing.
  • This package can contain information about those parts of a model that should be focused on, or the conditions for finishing testing (test stopping criteria).
  • To implement model-based testing you have to start with creating the models.

Because test suites are derived from models and not from source code, model-based testing is usually seen as one form of black-box testing. Well, due to we are executing combinations of simple small scenarios it make sense to have this small scenarios already stable and working. In more complex test scenarios we may even forget that we have some similar steps in scenarios because they are not so close and missed from our attention. In the login functionality, we have the same first step, open login page and then input some credentials.

The executable test suite can communicate directly with the system under test. This is achieved by mapping the abstract test cases to

concrete test cases suitable for execution. In some model-based testing environments, models contain enough information to generate executable test suites directly. In others, elements in the abstract test suite must be mapped to specific statements or method calls in the software to create a concrete test suite. This is called solving the «mapping problem».[1]

In the case of online testing (see below), abstract test suites exist only conceptually but not as explicit artifacts.

So, instead of test cases with steps (open the window, input credentials, check a message), we have a diagram (a model). However, the total price is output, thus you should code it according to the requirements. Another marker of the penetration of MBT in industry is the upcoming ISTQB certification for model-based testers. ISTQB® (International Software Testing Qualifications Board) is a nonprofit association founded in 2002. ISTQB® has defined the “ISTQB® Certified Tester” certification scheme, with more than 380,000 certifications issued worldwide since the beginning. ISTQB® is an organization based on volunteer work by hundreds of international testing experts.

test model meaning

Unit testing is not enough – so let’s start using model-based testing to improve our workflows. Learn about the fundamentals steps required to get started with automated website testing using the … It is an extension of the Finite state machine and can be used for complex and real time systems. The behavior of the system is analyzed and represented in the form of events for each state. Model-based testing for complex software systems is still an evolving field.

what is model-based testing

However, the related test would result in a negative car number in the cart. Hence, several invalid paths exist in the model and the usage of constraints is not enough. In this case by considering the testing technique functionally we find out the model-based test cases. For checking the functionality of software, the unit testing is not sufficient for this case so this is considered.

Then in Section 3 we report on some success stories, which show the concrete achievements of MBT in industrial context. After this report on empirical evidence, we summarize the advantages of MBT in Section 4. Even if MBT has reached a reasonable maturity, there are still open issues especially regarding the integration of MBT into the software development process. Therefore, in Section 5, we address some future challenges in interfacing MBT to other development activities.

By writing an executable model, we can (in)validate assumptions and then refine it. We can even fork and create additional models to tackle different aspects. Note however that MBT can be used even without automation as a way to talk about the system behavior and support manual testing activities (scripted or even exploratory). When we write test cases we may repeat some steps because of testing the same functionality different ways (good scenario, bad scenario, alternative paths etc). Another problem is that when there are no inner states in the system, how can the states be handled?

Or if you have a distributed or reactive system, that can also be a reason to consider this approach. You can easily integrate these tests into your CI processes and tools once you’re able to generate automated tests from models. To implement model-based testing you have to start with creating the models. Models can can cover any level of requirements, from business logic to user story, and can be connected to each other. The best approach you can employ seamlessly is model-based testing. In simple terms, this means creating a model of your system (more like a digital twin that describes every aspect of the system) and generating a test against the model.

The exclusion has been carried out by one researcher that has excluded 23 of the above list of tools, based on reading the abstract and the full-text of the primary study related to each tool, respectively. For some tools, no primary study has been found and the researcher relies only on other information such as web-sites. These 26 tools are then complemented with 7 more tools found by manual search performed by the same researcher. In the end, we reach a final figure of 33 tools, shown in Table 1. After successfully passing the certification, it is expected that an ISTQB Certified Model-Based Tester will have acquired the necessary skills to successfully contribute to MBT projects in a given context.